Indian Environment Protection Acts

Protecting and conserving our Environment is crucial for very existence and development of human race. The Parliament of India has brought in certain acts to protect and preserve the environment and make way for sustainable development to its citizens.
Current Affairs
Water Pollution
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1974 and amended in 1988 is to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country.

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act was enacted in 1977, and amended in 2003 is to provide for the levy and collection of a cess on water consumed by persons operating and carrying on certain types of industrial activities.

This cess is collected with a view to augment the resources of the Central Board and the State Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

Air Pollution

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1981 and amended in 1987 to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution in India.

Environment Protection
The Environment (Protection) Act was enacted in 1986 and amended in 1991 with the objective of providing for the protection and improvement of the environment.

It empowers the Central Government to establish authorities charged with the mandate of preventing environmental pollution in all its forms and to tackle specific environmental problems that are peculiar to different parts of the country.

The Biological Diversity Act 2002 aims at the conservation of biological resources and associated knowledge as well as facilitating access to them in a sustainable manner and through a just process for purposes of implementing the objects of the Act it establishes the National Biodiversity Authority in Chennai.

Forest Conservation
The Forest Conservation Act 1980 was enacted to help conserve the country's forests. It strictly restricts and regulates the de-reservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes without the prior approval of Central Government.

The Indian Forest Act, 1927 consolidates the law relating to forests, the transit of forest-produce and the duty on timber and other forest-produce.

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for according the same.

The Government of India enacted Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972 with the objective of effectively protecting the wild life of this country and to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives.

The Act was amended in January 2003 and punishment and penalty for offences under the Act have been made more stringent. The Ministry has proposed further amendments in the law by introducing more rigid measures to strengthen the Act. The objective is to provide protection to the listed endangered flora and fauna and ecologically important protected areas.

National Green Tribunal (NGT)
The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18th October 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same. New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other 4 place of sitting of the Tribunal.

National Environment Tribunal
In 1995 the Central Government established the National Environment Tribunal through the National Environment Tribunal Act 1995 to provide for strict liability for damage arising out of accidents caused from the handling of hazardous substances.
Published on 4/24/2018 4:14:00 PM

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