National Liberation Movements in the Colonies

Tenth ClassKey words:
  1. At the turn of the 20th century, China was ruled by emperors of Manchu dynasty. The Manchu empire was over thrown and a republic established in 1911 under the leadership of Sun-Yat-Sen. But the country come under the control of regional military powers called “War lords”.
  2. After the Republican revolution the China entered a period of turmoil. The Guomindang (KMT or Kuomintang of China) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) emerged as major forces striving to units the country and bring stability. The Guomindang failed because of its narrow social base and limited political vision. CCP leader Mao Zedong took a different path by basing his revolutionary programme on the peasantry.
  3. The People’s Republic of China Government was established in 1949. The CCP rule gradually became a single party rule in which the supreme leaders or Chairman become all powerful.
  4. In mid 19th century, Vietnam came under the direct rule of the French. During the French rule, in Vietnam land lordship dominated agriculture economy and peasants.
  5. Ho chi Minh brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist Party. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh become chairman, when the Vietminh came to power in August 1945, with the help of the Ho Chi Minh government in the north and the NLF fought for the unification of the country.
  6. The war between US and Vietnam was ended in 1974. The NLF occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30th April 1975 and finally unified Vietnam.
  7. An African country Nigeria becomes colony to Britain in 1861. Herbert Macaulay founded the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDF) in 1923. In 1936 the Nigerian youth movement (NYM) was founded by Nnamdi Azikiwe. In 1944, Macaulay and NYM leader Azikiwe agreed to form the National council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC).
  8. Nigeria became independent on 1st October 1963. After a long haul of military dictatorship, Nigerians elected a democratic government in 1999. Multinational companies head by the Dutch shell company acquired rights over oil drilling in Nigeria.
  9. Then popular unrest grew steadily in Nigeria Delta region where various ethnic groups began demanding compensation for years of ecological damages as well as control over their land’s oil resources.
  10. 10.The situation came further deteriorated in 1990 when an eminent human right activist and environmentalist Ken Saro Wiwa was executed by the military government despite international protests.
Key words:
  1. Land Reform: Land Reform is the process of Changing of laws regarding land ownership. The major steps were a class identification of all village inhabitants followed by the confiscation and redistribution of landlord and other productive property. Land reform succeeded in redistributing about 43 percent of china’s cultivated land to about 60 percent of the rural population.
  2. Landlordism: It is an economic system or practice by which ownership of land is vested in one leases it to cultivators.
  3. New Democracy: The People’s Republic of China government was established in 1949. It was based the principles of the ‘New Democracy’ an alliance of all social classes opposed to landlordism and imperialism.
  4. Forced labour: Employing labour by force without their consent.
  5. Chemical arms: Weapons that use poisonous gases and chemicals to kill and injure people.
  6. Weak democracy: Democracy has a weak platform as its basis.
  7. Pain- Africanism: It is an ideology that encourages the solidarity of African world-wide.
1. Trace the changes in the role of women seen in China over the decades. Why is it similar or different from that of USSR and Germany?
  1. Earlier women in China were under the cage of traditional practices. They were not taken into consideration to decisions.
  2. Over the decades women modernised and got education. They also became the part of the development in China.
  3. They started to work in industries and formed women trade unions to fight for their rights of social, political and economical.
  4. The Chinese Communist Party has made the achievement of female emancipation and equality between men and women. After the foundation of People’s Republic, there was a historic change in the social status and condition of women.
  5. The situation of women in USSR is difficult. In Russian Revolution 1917, they made a huge contribution. They tried to understand ideologies like liberalism, democracy and equality etc.
  6. Most of the women in Germany were controlled by the political powers, this happened particularly during the reign of Hitler. Compared to West German women, East German women had more privileges.
2. After the overthrow of monarchy, China had two different types of regimes. How were they similar or different?
  1. After overthrowing the monarchy, a Republican government was established in 1911 in China under the leadership of Sun-Yat-Sen. But soon the country came under the control of regional military powers called ‘War Lords’ due to absence of consolidation of the republican government.
  2. The republican government and war lords ran their own regimes. To consolidate the state, Sun-Yat-Sen republican government worked out a programme of action which has Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism as its fundamental principles.
  3. War lords, the regional military powers rule was worst. Revolutionaries called for driving out the foreigners, the Japanese and the British. They advocated reforms such as the use of simple language and script, abolishing the practice of foot-binding, subordination of women, equality in marriage and economic development that can end poverty.
3. Countries discussed in the above chapter were all mostly dependent on agriculture. What were the measures taken in these countries to changes these practices?

A. Measures were taken to change agricultural practices.
  1. Land Reforms were introduced and implemented properly. Comprehensive land reforms were launched in 1950-1951 in China. The major steps were a class identification of all village inhabitants followed by the confiscation and redistribution of land lord and other productive property.
  2. In this distribution, about 43 percent of China’s cultivated land went to about 60 percent of the poor peasants in the rural areas. Though this has increased the land holdings of the poor substantially, it was middle peasants who actually benefited most.
  3. Irrigation canals were built particularly in Vietnam. The French were keen to develop Vietnam as an exporter of rice. So, they had improved the irrigation network, encouraged landlords and facilitated the marketing of agricultural produce like rice and rubber. The French began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
  4. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh came to power in August 1945. They immediately issued a circular for a 25% reduction in land rents.
  5. In China, a strong peasant council was organized, united through confiscation and redistribution of land of landlords. Thus, the power on land changed from the hands of landlords to common poor peasants.
4. Compare the national movement in India and Nigeria. Can you explain why it was stronger in India?
  1. A section of western educated intellectuals developed the idea of a common Nigerian nation and began to fight the British rule.
  2. Herbert Macaulay founded the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP). It won all the seats in the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933.
  3. In the 1930s, Macaulay also supported militant attacks on the British Colonial Government.
  4. In 1936, the Nigerian Youth Movement (NYM) was founded by Nnamdi Azikiwe. In 1944 Macaulay and MYM leader Azikiwe agreed to form the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), After Formation of NCNC by Macaulay and leader Azikiwe, Nigerian nationalism grew in popularity. The backbone of this movement was Nigerian soldiers.
  5. In India, people of the country fought the British under the leadership of M.K. Gandhi. The non-violence and non-cooperation became the weapons to freedom fighters.
  6. The freedom struggle or the national movement in India was stronger than the national movement in Nigeria as masses were involved in India in larger numbers and it was not the case in Nigeria.
5. What are the challenges faced by the independent Nigerian nation? In what is it similar or different from the challenges faced by independent India?
  1. After a long hand of military dictatorship, Nigerians elected a democratic government in 1999. It remains to be seen how it faces challenge of building a democratic Nigeria.
  2. Reckless oil extraction without care for the environment by foreign oil companies has wrecked havoc in Nigerian coastal environment. Oil spillage from oil wells had a devastating effect on the ecosystem.
  3. An estimated 5-10 % of Nigerian mangrove ecosystem had been wiped out during the clearing of oil spills, the crops and aqua culture were destroyed due to contamination of the groundwater and soils.
  4. Drinking water is also frequently contaminated, and sheen of oil is visible in many local water bodies.
  5. Offshore spills, which are usually much greater in scale, contaminated coastal environments and caused a decline in local fish production.
  6. The situation reached the critical juncture in 1990 when eminent human rights activist and environmentalist Ken Saro Wiwa was executed by the military government despite international protests.
  7. These oil resource were located in southeast of Nigeria but the oil wealth was used in Northern Nigeria. This had created a conflict between the Nigerians of north and south regions.
  8. The challenges, which were faced by the India, after Independence were entirely different that of Nigeria. The country was divided into two by the Partition. Independent India had faced number of problems in integration of states as princely states such as Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junaghadh refused to join Indian Union. India was a poor nation with low human development indications and meager infrastructural facilities. Building a modern self –development and equitable nation in India was both a challenge and an opportunity.
1. Match the following



1. Sun-Yat- Sen A) Militarised the nation
2. Chiang Kai Shek B) Environmental movement
3. Mao Zedong C) Nationalism Democracy and socialism
4. Ken Saro Wiwa D) Peasant revolution

Answer: 1-C, 2-D, 3-A, 4-B

2. Who owned industries in countries discussed above and what policies were brought into change the system? Make a table to compare them? A.


Industries owned by

Policy changes taking place



Accepted technological changes

They need trained skilled labour



Accepted the technological change and new inventions.

It has greater collaboration with third world countries



Military government violated human rights

They failed to control oil companies from reckless oil extraction

3. Unlike Vietnam and India, Nigeria did not have to struggle so hard for freedom. Can you find some explanations for this?
  1. Vietnam and India were ruled by foreign powers since many centuries. They were no territorial divisions in India and Vietnam like Nigeria.
  2. In freedom struggle Vietnam faced war with US. India fought against the British for a long period of time to get independence. In Nigeria, the people of different regions came together to fight colonial powers.
  3. Once they were united, they could easily fight the British and got independence.
4. What role did schooling play in national movements of the countries discussed above?
  1. Socio- cultural transformation took place with the spread of schooling. The students fought against the colonial governments.
  2. The western ideologies i.e., freedom, equality and democracy were spread over these countries through schooling.
  3. The youth established various political parties and gathered the people to fight against the colonial powers. Thus the schooling played an important role in the national movements of these countries.
5. Freedom struggle in these countries involved wars against the rulers. Briefly describe its impact?
  1. China during its freedom struggle had had war with Japan in 1937.
  2. Vietnam fought the US in prolonged bitter war between 1965 and 1972.
  3. In Nigeria, freedom fighters consolidated military to fight against the British.
  4. US used Agent Orange in war with Vietnam. US had destroyed the forest and fields in Vietnam.
  5. Valuable natural resources like oil spills have destroyed the ecology of Nigeria.
These wars were impacted the socio-political and economy of these countries. Due to wars, the economies of these countries become weak.
Published on 12/16/2014 5:06:00 PM