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Post war World and India

10th Class New Syllabus Study MaterialKey points:
  1. The impact of the World War-II was different for different countries. The worst affected were the European countries and the USA suffered less. Indeed the war helped USA to come out of its economic misery caused by the great depression.
  2. Countries rebuilt their economies; the world saw some new processes. They were the establishment of the UN, cold war and decolonization. The Second World War had been fought on the principles of peace, democracy and freedom of nations in contrast to the Nazi ideas.
  3. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) emerged as a Champion of anti-colonial struggles. After the War, the world was divided into two groups under USSR and USA. USSR promoted the ideas of equality and state controlled development and suppression of opposition to these principles. On the other side USA promoted the ideas of multiparty democracy and private capitalist controlled process of development. The USA also started suppressing it’s ideological enemies across the globe. This ideological conflict is known as ‘the cold war’.
  4. In 1955 under the leadership of Nehru, Nasser and Tito, Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) was organized. But the USA doubted the policies of NAM. There was a heavy competition between USSR and USA in alliances with other countries. USA with its alliances made NATO, SEATO and CENTO and USSR made Warsaw Pact.
  5. In West Asian Countries, there was a conflict between Arabs and Israelites related to Palestine. The PLO leader Yasar Arafat and Israel president made a peace agreement.
  6. The reforms introduced by Gorbachev in the USSR are described as ‘Glasnost’ and ‘Perestroika’, which were aimed at bringing transparency in governance and more freedom to people. These reforms made for the revival of their economy and promoted healthy relation with the West.
  7. Jawaharlal Nehru formulated the Panchseel principles to determine India’s relations with other countries.
  8. Pakistan has over the years encouraged separatist movements in the border states of India. Both India and Bangladesh have cooperated on many fronts. ‘Look East Policy’ of India is aimed at linking-up with Southeast Asia via Myanmar.
  9. The conflicts between Sri Lanka and LTTE made the relations between India and Sri Lanka worse. India decided not to interfere when the Sri Lankan government began an all out war against the Tamil Militants which caused immense bloodshed and violation of human rights.
Key Concepts:
  1. Military Alliances: The USA and USSR made several alliances. Military alliance means an agreement between two or more, military factions, related to war-time planning, commitments, or contingencies. Such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. NATO, SEATO and CENTO are military alliances.
  2. Proxy War: Bringing fights between other countries by USSR and USA to show their domination. Proxy war is a war instigated by a major power.
  3. Arms race: Each country competes to produce larger number of weapons. Competition between USA and USSR in the issue of making and marketing weapons was called as Arms race.
  4. Unipolar World: Dominated by one super power especially, the US. After the collapse of the USSR, the US had no competition to its world dominance.
  5. Bipolar Wolrd: In bipolar world, two group of countries i.e., USA, USSR influenced the world.
  6. Decolonisation: Handing over the colonies to the natives was called as decolonization.
  7. Peace: Friendly environment among the countries and no scope for a war
  8. Veto: A right to reject a decision made by a law making body. This is a special power given to USSR, USA, UK, France and China which are permanent members of Security Council of  UNO in taking important decisions.
  9. Ethnic Conflict: Conflict between two groups on the basis of religion or race. Ethnic conflicts can take place within a country and between two or more countries.
  10. Zionist Movement: Jews formed a union spread across the world which is known Zionist Movement.
  11. Non Alignment Movement: This movement was started to uphold the independence of third world countries after World War-II. NAM countries choose not to support any military alliance by the USA or USSR.
ESSAY ANSWER QUESTIONS
  1. What are the different roles played by United Nations in order to build peace in the world?
    A. 1. The principle allied countries like Britain, France, USA, USSR and China drafted a chapter, which emphasised the need to preserve peace and prevent wars along with ensure human rights, democracy and eradication of poverty, for the formation of the UNO.
    2. The UN works through six different organs. Each of these organs has specific functions like maintaining peace and security, improving education and health facilities, alleviating poverty, providing justice in the context of international crimes and so on.
    3. UN has forced great powers to exercise moderation and self-control. The special powers also have given the great powers a special role and responsibility is preserving world peace.
    4. UN has played an important role in formation of Israel. It undertook a military action against North Korea to settle down the issue of South Korea. UN helped Congo to get freedom. It brought peace between India and Pakistan on Kashmir problem. UN also solved the Suez Canal crises.
    5. The UN has been doing commendable work in the area of education, health, cultural exchange and protection of heritage. But UN has been less successful in preventing wars.
  2. How were the super powers benefited by military alliances?
    A. 1. The USA formed military and strategic alliances the west formalized its alliances in an organisation known as NATO in 1949. To counter this, the communist nations signed the Warsaw Pact. In addition to this, US established SEATO and CENTO.
    2. The alliances helped super powers, which wanted to expand their influence to gain access to the vital resources such as oil and minerals.
    - Markets for their products and places to safely invest their capital.
    - Military bases to launches their troops and weapons.
    - Spread their ideology and gain economic support, to pay huge military expenses.
  3. By the end of the 20th Century, there was only one super power dominating the world and NAM couldn’t do much about it. - elaborate?
    A. 1. Non-Alignment Movement was established as an international organisation with an aim to promote cultural and economic cooperation among the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
    2. Over the years the NAM helped countries like India to take an independent posture when the two super powers fell apart and pulled countries to their side.
    3. NAM helped the newly independent nations assert their autonomy is international affairs in a world torn between the two super powers.
    4. However, due to non-existence of USSR, today US has no competition to its dominance. By the end of the 20th century there was only single power dominating the world and NAM couldn’t do much in the changed atmosphere.
  4. “Formation of NAM was not merely in the context of military alliances but also in the context of economic policies”. Justify the answer?
    A. 1. The aim of NAM is to render, help to all its members in strengthening the economical conditions of them. The economical assistance was rendered to the members whenever there were natural calamities or support needed.
    2. During the years, the focus of NAM summits shifted to the advocacy of solutions to global economic and other problems.
    3. Early 1980’s, the NAM sponsored Campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, particularly the New International Economic Order (NIEO).
    4. The 1992 Jakarta Summit of NAM allowed the movement to shift its focus in a direction that enabled it to work across the grouping as G7 Countries and the European Union (EU).
    5. NAM can also help its members to exploit the tremendous potential of mutual co-operation for their development. The NAM Nations can collectively plan for the trade which can help them to boost economical conditions.
    SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
  1. Choose the correct answer. Which among the following statement about the cold war is wrong?
    A. a) Rivalry between US and USSR
    b) USA and USSR engaged in direct war
    c) Triggering off an arms race
    d) An ideological war between the super powers.
    Ans: (b) USA and USSR engaged in direct war.
  2. Who amongst the following is not involved in the West Asian Crisis?
    a) Egypt
    b) Indonesia
    c) Britain
    d) Israel
    Ans: (b) Indonesia
  3. What was the nature of shift in power in the world after the Second World War?
    A. 1. USA came out of its economic misery and become the most powerful nation after the Second World War.
    2. USA pressurized colonial powers to dismantle the old colonial system.
    3. There was a great shift of power after world war-II. Super powers i.e. the USA and the USSR have emerged.
  4. Given the idea of democracy, do you think a few countries should have special powers is making decisions?
    A. The countries that can take amicable decisions to solve problems among the nations should be given some special powers. But the idea of democracy no such powers allowed. Therefore, they should be restricted with some norms.
  5. How did cold war produced arms race as well as arms control?
    A.: a. Cold war produced an arms race as well as arms control.
    b. Many nuclear weapons were produced during the period of cold war.
    c. The cold war characterised by the intense tension among countries of the world. Main tactics used during the cold war included proxy wars, military alliances, and arms race.
  6. Why the West Asia become a centre of tensions in the world?
    A. When the huge oil reserves were discovered in Middle East i.e., in the West Asia, the super powers have a thirst of occupying those reserves by any means. This rush has created the Israel-Palestine issue in the West Asia. The acts of the Western powers were the main cause for the tension in west Asia.
  7. “The ethnic conflicts affected India’s relations with Sri Lanka.” – justify?
    A. A major irritant in the relation between Sri Lanka and India has been the treatment of Tamil minorities by the Sri Lanka government. India befriended Sri Lanka and Rajiv Gandhi sent Indian army to help Sri Lankan government, which lead to his assassination by the LTTE. Finally, Mahinda Rajapaksa government made destructive attack and killed thousands of Tamil tigers and civilians and violated the basic human rights. Now since there is no Tamil militant movement, the relationship between India and Sri Lanka came to normally.
  8. Make a table show relation between India and neighboring countries with following items. Issue of conflict, events of war, events of help and cooperation?
A.

Countries

Conflicts

Events of Wars

Help

Co-operation

Bangladesh

Over the Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers flow

Helped it to get freedom

War with Pakistan

Good

Pakistan

Kashmir issue

Enemies

Natural calamities

Bad

China

Tibet and border

Foe

To get veto power in UNO

Good

Sri Lanka

LTTE issue

Neutral

To solve the issue of LTTE

Normal

Published on 12/24/2014 11:51:00 AM
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10th class social study material tenth class social study material Post- War World and India study material social paper II social study material